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酒泉农机科技推广专啃“硬骨头”特色亮点鲜明突出

2022-11-24 09:09:55 来源:甘肃省酒泉市农机服务中心 冯正睿 赵岚 阅读量:8409 评论

导读:抓重点,攻难点,专啃畜禽粪污综合利用装备研制开发、种业装备机械生产制造、高原夏菜机械收获等“硬骨头”,各个击破制约全市农业机械化水平提升“瓶颈”, 全年工作特色亮点鲜明突出,成效明显。

  【农机网 地方农机】今年,甘肃省酒泉市农机科技推广坚持以服务农业农村经济高质量发展和乡村产业振兴为目标,以实施农机科技项目推广新机具新技术为抓手,紧紧围绕市委、市政府确立的现代制种、高效蔬菜、特色林果、食药同源、农畜加工、有机畜牧等六大特色产业和特色产业发展方向,针对农村劳动力日益紧缺、社会劳动力价格持续攀升和农村土地流转步伐明显加快的实际,充分发挥农机化科技在节本增效、推动规模经营等方面的重要作用,积极培育壮大农机专业合作社等新型农机科技推广载体,努力拓展部门主导、多元参与、创新驱动模式的农机科技推广新格局,抓重点,攻难点,专啃畜禽粪污综合利用装备研制开发、种业装备机械生产制造、高原夏菜机械收获等“硬骨头”,各个击破制约全市农业机械化水平提升“瓶颈”, 全年工作特色亮点鲜明突出,成效明显。
 
  一是畜禽粪污综合利用装备研发成效斐然再创佳绩,粪污利用环节配套机具种类进一步丰富。在2021年承担实施省农业农村厅畜禽粪污综合利用装备研发项目,围绕禽粪污清理、运输、转化利用三大关键环节,重点对清粪机、翻堆机、撒粪机、箱式粪污高温发酵成套设备等6个机型进行改进完善的基础上,今年争取省农业农村厅省级农机装备补短板行动资金100万元,依托甘肃省农业废弃物资源化利用装备研发中心(酒泉市铸陇机械制造有限公司),围绕小规模养殖户畜禽粪污清理、处理、施用环节小型专用装备短板,研制改进小型清粪装载机、固态施肥机、业态洒肥机,实现了清粪及施肥机械批量生产;研制成功集农家肥拉运、果园开深沟、肥料铺施、覆土回填等功能于一体的果园厩肥深施机械,进一步丰富了畜禽粪污综合利用装备机具种类,稳步解决畜禽粪污资源化利用关键环节“无机可用”、“无好机用”的问题。
 
  二是制种玉米抽雄与收获装备研发取得突破性进展,制种玉米生产全程有望逐步实现机械化。制种玉米全程机械化是涵盖玉米品种选育、品种试验、制种生产、种子加工等多环节的系统工程,从配套技术方面来看,目前酒泉市制种玉米种子生产机械化配套技术体系尚未完全建立,机械化生产在技术力量、机具质量及性能方面难以满足高质量种子的生产需求。从种业生产过程来看,整个制种过程机械化程度发展不充分、不均衡,尤其是去雄与收获环节,农机产品和玉米制种技术匹配程度不好,严重制约了全市玉米种业高质量发展,因此,加大制种玉米去雄与收获环节配套机械研制开发步伐,加快去雄与收获环节配套机械科研成果从样机到产品的转换,迫在眉睫,势在必行。今年,酒泉市依托甘肃省农作物种业装备研发中心,研发了适宜于河西走廊制种玉米主产区应用的3CX-6A轻量化小型高地隙自走式制种玉米去雄机,目前,3CX-6A轻量化制种玉米去雄机已进入设备性能测试阶段,为酒泉市大面积推广制种玉米抽雄机械化技术奠定了基础。与此同时,由甘农大承担的卧式割台制种玉米联合收获机研制项目取得重大进展,项目机具第一代4YZS-4A制种玉米收获机和第一代4YZSJ-4A穗茎兼收制种玉米收获机今年开展了试验作业,经专家团队现场检测评定,相关作业指标均能达到国家种穗玉米收获机田间作业性能检测要求。
 
  三是中小型农机制造企业特色农机产销两旺,成为全市农机科技推广一支不可获取的力量。酒泉市建荣好帮手农业机械加工有限公司、金塔金农农机制造有限公司、金塔恒升农机有限公司、敦煌祥农农机制造有限公司等中小型农机制造企业适应城乡一体化、农村土地规模化经营进程加快,新型特色农业产业和家庭农场、农民专业合作社等新型农业经营主体不断涌现的新形势,加大农机新产品开发投入力度,因地制宜加快农机新产品更新换代、创新升级步伐,研发成功了全混合日粮饲料搅拌机、指夹式铺膜精量播种机、分层施肥播种机、可折叠镇压器等一批具有自主知识产权的特色农业机械,推动区域特色农业生产全程机械化,提升产业效益,增加农民收入。酒泉市宏运兴机械制造有限公司、肃州区精种机械加工厂等小型种业装备制造企业,围绕蔬菜、花卉、瓜类、牧草等作物种子刷种、分离、分选、脱粒、清选、包衣等关键环节,研制生产了5XP-50型刷种机、5BXY-2型种子包衣机、5XZ--5.0型种子比重清选机、5XC---60型比重复式清选机、5XB---200型辊选机(取翘板籽机)等一大批小型种业生产机械,满足了不同农户、制种企业对种子生产机械的需求,实现了种业装备多样化、差异化。
 
  四是农机流通企业引进销售新产品力度加大,市场配置在农机科技推广中的决心性作用明显。酒泉市农机服务中心以提高特色农业机械化发展水平为目标,坚持市场导向,支持农机生产销售企业加大农机新产品引进销售推广力度,补齐短板,实现关键农业机械装备有效供给。针对制种玉米收获机械旺盛的市场需求,酒泉市天王机电设备有限公司、酒泉奥田农机有限公司等农机销售企业,对大田玉米联合收获机按照玉米制种农艺要求进行技术改进,并联合市内种业企业开展了天人玉米收获机、宗申戈梅利玉米收获机、哈克玉米收获机等品牌机型制种玉米机械收获试验作业,收获后的玉米种子发芽试验结论种子公司认可,为全市逐步实现制种玉米收获机械化积累了经验,进行了有益的尝试。酒泉市天启元农机销售有限公司针对群众选购洋葱收获机械机型有限的实际,引进了新型洋葱挖掘收获机进行下地试验。引进由河北顶呱呱机械制造有限公司研发生产的4MJ-260A型落地棉捡拾机在金塔、瓜州开展机械捡拾作业,使用效果良好,受到用户欢迎。
 
  五是农机专业合作社的载体作用日益凸显,在农机科技推广中的功放倍增效应得到充分释放。目前全市通过政策支持和资金补贴农机专业合作社达到307家,已成为农机化新机具新技术推广应用的新型载体,有效发挥了“功放机”作用,科技示范辐射带动效应明显增强。酒泉市鑫源农机合作社、晶鑫农机专业合作社,敦煌市福田农机专业合作社、田野农机专业合作社,玉门市铁麦客农机专业合作社、鹏诚农机合作社,瓜州县凯德顺农机专业合作社、戈壁雪润农机专业合作社,金塔县聚赢农机合作社等一批新型农机合作服务组织广泛参与玉米机收、棉花机采、牧草机械收割打捆等农机作业服务,率先应用新型农机具和先进农机新技术,开展农机功能拓展和设备新增附件研发,增加了农业效益和农民收入,增加了农业经济发展新亮点。金塔县三高农机专业合作社、务农农机专业合作社踊跃承接2022年省级蔬菜机械化技术装备集成示范项目,积极引进新机具开展农田试验作业,产生了良好的经济效益和社会效益。
 
  六是棉花机械采收成为社会各界关注热点,采棉机国产替代进口趋势明显。2022年全市棉花种植面积继续呈现恢复性增长态势,达到23.15万亩,其中机采棉模式种植15.2万亩。棉花采摘季节,全市组织大型采棉机30台投入机采棉采摘作业,有效缩短了棉花收获周期。党的二十大召开前夕,瓜州、敦煌机采棉采收被央视财经频道先后报道,目前全市棉花机械采收作业已经全部结束。今年全市采棉机拥有量达到23台,其中国产20台,占比86.96%,在现有20台采棉机中,新疆钵施然智能农机股份有限公司采棉机10台,现代农装科技股份有限公司采棉机3台,山东天鹅棉业机械股份有限公司采棉机3台,常州东风农机集团有限公司采棉机2台,江苏沃得农业机械有限公司采棉机2台。根据瓜州县、敦煌市机采棉用户反映,国产采棉机作业性能满足生产作业要求,生产效率高,可靠性稳定。
 
  七是区县特色产业农机科技推广遍地开花,持续提高特色作物收获机械化水平。加快“机器换人”步伐是降低农业生产劳动力成本的必由之路。进入今年下半年,县市区农机服务中心抓住“三秋”农业生产的有利时机,通过举办农机化新机具新技术现场会,指导农机生产企业开展新产品田间试验等方式加快收获环节农机化新机具新技术推广应用步伐。敦煌、玉门、瓜州、金塔等县市,围绕棉花、番茄、辣椒、洋葱、籽用葫芦等特色作物收获,通过举办现场会、“地头展”等方式,用最直接、最醒目的方式向农民群众、农业生产组织推荐农机新产品,推广农机新技术,持续提高特色作物收获环节机械化生产水平。
 
  今年,全市农机科技推广专啃“硬骨头”还从劳动力密集产业入手,加快新机具、新技术在农作物生产各个环节的应用步伐,使机械作业替代人工劳动贯穿土地耕整、秧苗移栽、精量播种、田间管理、收获加工全过程,助力农业农村现代化。
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