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黄淮海地区粘虫蛾量高 警惕局部出现暴发危害

2024-06-11 09:06:01 来源:全国农业技术推广服务中心 阅读量:4940 评论

导读:近期,黄淮海、东北、西北等地一代粘虫蛾量明显上升,黄淮海大部地区峰期早、蛾量高,东北多点田间查见二代卵。

  【农机网 热点关注】 近期,黄淮海、东北、西北等地一代粘虫蛾量明显上升,黄淮海大部地区峰期早、蛾量高,东北多点田间查见二代卵。结合天气条件和作物种植情况,预计二代粘虫全国发生面积3500万亩,总体中等程度发生,局部蛾量高、降水丰沛区域局部会出现高密度田块,发生为害盛期为6月中下旬至7月上旬。
 
  一、一代粘虫发生轻、残虫量低
 
  长江中下游、江淮、黄淮麦区一代粘虫有虫面积为403万亩,比2023年减少19.2%,属于轻发生年份;除湖北麦区中等程度发生外,其他地区麦田平均每平方米虫量仅0.3头,比2023年减少40%。全国防治或兼治面积769万亩,防治后残虫量较低,平均每平方米0.2头。
 
  二、黄淮海地区峰期早、蛾量高,其他地区蛾量较低
 
  5月下旬以来,各地陆续出现一代成虫诱蛾高峰,与常年同期相比,南方地区、东北地区蛾量较低,但黄淮海地区呈现峰期早、蛾量高的特点。
 
  各监测点高空测报灯一代成虫累计诱蛾量,广西宜州700头,广东高州85头,湖南江永104头,陕西兴平4008头,山西万荣13头、芮城116头,北京延庆204头,吉林长岭6头,黑龙江双城32头。其中,黄淮海地区陕西兴平、北京延庆同比分别增加56倍、50倍,其他监测点与常年同期持平或偏低。
 
  5月底至6月初,河南、山西、河北等黄淮海地区多个监测点普通测报灯下同期出现蛾峰,较常年提前5天左右,且蛾量明显高于常年或去年同期。其中,河南沁阳、郸城、淮阳区、长葛、安阳等地峰日为5月27—29日,峰日蛾量180—450头,峰期累计诱蛾量为500—2000头;山西峰日为5月26日—6月1日,全省有3个监测点峰期累计诱蛾量大于200头;河北峰日为5月28日—6月2日,全省有12个监测点峰期累计诱蛾量为100—1000头,有8个监测点峰期累计诱蛾量为1000—4000头,而常年(去年)同期无明显蛾峰。此外,江淮地区普通测报灯和性诱捕器诱蛾量较低,其中江苏全省12个监测点5月下旬以来累计诱蛾量837头,高淳区测报灯峰日蛾量最高74头,盐城性诱捕器峰日蛾量最高79头。
 
  东北地区诱蛾量总体较低。5月份以来普通测报灯累计诱蛾量,内蒙古托克托县、达拉特旗60—80头,辽宁彰武、建平分别为41头、30头。吉林各监测点性诱捕器累计诱蛾量一般为5—31头。黑龙江20个县262台监测设备诱到成虫,平均单台累计诱蛾量65头,接近常年同期。
 
  三、东北地区田间见卵
 
  自5月底以来,东北地区多点田间见卵。其中,内蒙古通辽市3个旗县10个谷草把累计诱卵85.5块,比去年同期高48.7%,其中科左后旗10个谷草把最高诱卵19块、卵粒数最高240粒;辽宁建平10个草把累计诱卵6块,平均卵粒数55粒;吉林九台、公主岭、磐石、永吉累计诱卵21块,平均卵粒数101粒,九台最高卵粒数525粒。
 
  四、天气条件对华北东北等地粘虫发生有利
 
  据国家气候中心预测,6月份玉米主产区大部地区气温接近常年同期到偏高,西北地区东部降水偏多,对二代粘虫的发生为害有利,东北南部、华北东部、黄淮东部等地降水明显偏少,对其发生有不利影响;未来10天,华北北部、内蒙古东部、东北地区大部等地累计降水量有15—40毫米,局地超过50毫米,降水量较常年同期偏多3—7成,局部偏多1倍以上,对一代成虫的持续迁入以及二代卵和幼虫的孵化有利。
 
  鉴于粘虫成虫迁飞能力强、低龄幼虫为害隐蔽的特点,各地要认真做好成虫种群发生动态监测,同时做好谷子田和杂草多的玉米田卵和幼虫系统调查,尤其是前期集中迁入的黄淮海地区要特别提高警惕,防止出现高密度集中为害。
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