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佳木斯市DB2308/T 119-2022《大豆-玉米轮作与秸秆还田技术规程》解读

2023-01-16 11:45:08 来源:农机网整理发布 阅读量:24011 评论

导读:这一地方标准适用于黑龙江省佳木斯市大豆-玉米轮作生产区域。

  【农机网 政策与标准】2022年12月6日,佳木斯市市场监督管理局批准发布了DB2308/T 119-2022《大豆-玉米轮作与秸秆还田技术规程》,这一地方标准自2023年1月5日起正式实施。
 
  该标准由佳木斯市农业农村局提出并归口,由佳木斯市市场监督管理局批准发布,由黑龙江省农业科学院佳木斯分院起草。规定了大豆-玉米轮作与秸秆还田技术的术语和定义、产地环境条件、田间秸秆处理、耕整地、品种选择及种子处理、施肥、播种、田间管理及收获等技术要求。适用于黑龙江省佳木斯市大豆-玉米轮作生产区域。
 
  田间秸秆处理:大豆玉米收获后,田间秸秆全部粉碎,要求留茬高度和秸秆粉碎长度小于10 cm,秸秆粉碎合格率达到90 %,秸秆粉碎后在田间抛撒均匀。
 
  耕整地方式及质量要求——
 
  秸秆翻埋还田整地:地势低洼易涝地块宜选用秸秆翻埋还田方式,利用铧式犁进行深翻扣埋秸秆作业,以打破犁底层为宜,深翻作业后晒筏3 d~5 d,用重耙机呈对角线方向耙地2 次,保证无立垡、坐垡,作业质量符合NY/T 742-2003标准。
 
  秸秆碎混还田整地:地势平整地块可选用秸秆碎混还田方式,利用旋耕机进行旋耕整地作业,大豆茬可直接用深松旋耕机整地,玉米茬需要用秸秆粉碎还田机将玉米茬打碎后再旋耕,留茬高度和秸秆粉碎长度小于10 cm, 作业质量符合NT/T 500-2015标准。
 
  秸秆覆盖还田整地:地势平整、积温适宜地区,可选用秸秆覆盖还田方式,秸秆覆盖还田秋季不采取任何深松和翻转土壤作业,越冬期间保留全部残茬。
 
  整地质量要求:耕翻、深松深度25 cm以上,旋耕深度16 cm~18 cm,耙茬深度12 cm~15 cm,达到播种状态。翻埋还田和碎混还田耕整地后,土层要覆盖秸秆,地表裸露秸秆不高于5 %,且地表要平整。
 
  起垄:秸秆翻埋和碎粉还田方式进行起垄,秋起65 cm垄,或130 cm和110 cm大垄;130 cm大垄,台上宽90 cm,台高16 cm;110 cm大垄,台上宽70 cm,台高18 cm,起垄后要进行镇压。
 
  播种——
 
  播期:当地温稳定通过7 ℃~8 ℃,适时播种。
 
  播法——
 
  垄作:使用垄三专用播种机精量播种,玉米65 cm行距上播种1行,大豆65 cm行距上播种2行。
 
  大垄窄行:使用大垄窄行专用播种机垄上精量播种,玉米130 cm或110 cm行距上播种2 行;大豆130 cm大垄上播种3行或4行,110 cm大垄上播种3行。
 
  免耕平作:应用秸秆覆盖还田时,选择经过试验示范适宜的免耕播种机(如约翰迪尔 1590 等),在有秸秆覆盖的地块上一次性完成窄开沟、施肥、播种、覆土镇压等作业。玉米行距 65 cm~68 cm,大豆行距 30 cm~40 cm。
 
  播种质量:精量播种,根据品种特性确定播种密度。选用秸秆覆盖还田模式,适量增加5 %~10 %的种子用量。大豆播种质量符合NY/T 3662要求,玉米播种质量符合GB/T 34379要求。
 
  收获——
 
  大豆收获:在大豆茎叶黄枯,籽粒归圆,含水量不高于15 %时,使用联合收割机进行收获。作业质量符合NY/T 738要求。
 
  玉米收获:玉米进入完熟期,使用玉米收获机进行收获,采用籽粒收获时,籽粒含水率不高于 25 %;当玉米籽粒含水率高于 25 %时,应采用摘穗收获方式。作业质量应符合 NY/T 1355 的规定。
 
  注:本文由农机网(www.nongjx.com)整理发布,资料来源:地方标准信息公共服务平台。
 
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