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黑龙江省DB23/T 2893—2021 《马铃薯机械中耕技术规范》解读

2023-01-13 14:53:50 来源:农机网整理发布 阅读量:32462 评论

导读:该标准规定了马铃薯机械中耕的安全要求、一般要求、作业方法、作业质量。适用于马铃薯中耕机(以下简称中耕机)的中耕作业。

  【农机网 政策与标准】黑龙江省DB23/T 2893—2021 《马铃薯机械中耕技术规范》由黑龙江省农业农村厅提出,由黑龙江省农业机械工程科学研究院、黑龙江九牧机械设备有限公司起草。该地方标准于2021年5月13日由黑龙江省市场监督管理局批准发布,自2021年6月12日开始实施。
 
  该标准规定了马铃薯机械中耕的安全要求、一般要求、作业方法、作业质量。适用于马铃薯中耕机(以下简称中耕机)的中耕作业。


 

  安全要求:
 
  中耕机的安全要求应符合 GB 10395.1 和 GB 10395.5 的规定。
 
  对操作人员有危险的外露传动装置、旋转部件等应有可靠的防护罩,防护罩应便于机器的维护、保养和观察,防护罩的涂漆颜色应区别于中耕机的整机涂色。
 
  在中耕机升降机构和链轮传动机构等危险部位,应在附近的明显位置设置安全警示标志,安全警示标志应符合 GB 10396 规定。
 
  机组操作人员上岗前应经过安全操作培训。
 
  一般要求:
 
  机具在运输和作业过程中,机具上不得搭乘人员和重物。
 
  在作业、地头转弯和升降时,机具附近不应有人。
 
  入土部件在入土作业状态下,机具不得倒退或转弯。
 
  作业中发现异常或故障应停机检查,排除异常或故障后继续作业。
 
  机具处于升起状态时,不应在机具下面进行检查和保养。停机时,机具不应悬挂停放。
 
  调整、检修和保养机具时,应先切断输出轴动力,后关闭拖拉机发动机。
 
  长途运输时应使用挂车或汽车装运,短途运输或田间转移时应采用拖拉机悬挂,整机应升到最高位置,且拖拉机液压系统的限位机构应可靠。
 
  作业方法——
 
  作业条件:
 
  应按马铃薯中耕机使用说明书的要求选择地块
 
  中耕作业时,土壤含水率为 15%~25%,土壤硬度(坚实度)0.4MPa~2.0MPa.
 
  作业地块不应有砖石、铁丝等硬质障碍物。
 
  中耕作业应为 2 次,第一次中耕作业应选在播种后,幼芽距离破土 2cm~3cm。第二次中耕作业应选在现蕾前,苗高 10cm~15cm。
 
  作业前准备:
 
  按照地块形状确定作业行进路线和作业回转区。
 
  按照使用说明书要求将机具调整到作业状态。
 
  操作方法:
 
  作业前应先进行试耕,试耕时要对行距、耕深、施肥量等各项指标进行检测,指标符合作业质量要求后,进入正式作业。
 
  机组起步时,应按照已确定的作业路线,边走边缓慢放下机具,并保持正确的行走位置。
 
  作业中应注意监听转动部件声响,发现有异响应停机检查,待故障排除后继续工作。
 
  作业时遇有转弯、调头时,应将机具提升至安全高度,缓慢运行。
 
  作业过程中应适时清理工作部件上的泥土、秸秆等杂物,及时添加肥料,保证肥箱内的肥量不少于总容积的四分之一。
 
  每作业 3h~4h,应停车检查。各入土部件不应有变形,紧固件不应有松动,机具工作状态应保持良好。
 
  作业过程中应随时注意耕作深度和施肥量的变化,并及时做出调整。
 
  作业结束后应清理杂草污物、检查各部件运转情况。
 
  作业质量:
 
  中耕松土深度 20cm~30cm,深浅应一致。
 
  中耕除草率应大于 70%。
 
  施肥深度 10cm~18cm,排肥断条率应小于 4%。
 
  中耕作业不应埋压秧苗,行间伤苗率应小于 1%,地头伤苗率应小于 3%。
 
  中耕培土后垄帮、垄沟、垄顶应有一定厚度的松土层,第一次中耕培土厚度应为 3cm 以上,第二次中耕培土要求培严土,封垄前起垄高度达到 30cm,垄断面围长 105cm~110cm。
 
  注:本文由农机网(www.nongjx.com)整理发布,资料来源:地方标准信息公共服务平台。
 
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