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盘锦市DB2111/T 0008-2021《水稻秸秆还田整地机械化作业技术规范》解读

2022-11-22 13:33:44 来源:农机网整理发布 阅读量:17430 评论

导读:该标准适用于水稻秸秆全量还田的深翻、深旋、水埋茬旋耕、埋茬起浆机械化作业。

  【农机网 政策与标准】盘锦市DB2111/T 0008-2021《水稻秸秆还田整地机械化作业技术规范》于2021年9月24日由盘锦市市场监督管理局批准发布,该地方标准自2021年10月24日实施。
 
  该标准由盘锦市农业农村局提出并归口,由盘锦市现代农业发展中心起草,规定了水稻秸秆全量还田整地机械化的作业准备、试作业、作业、检测方法、安全要求、维护与保养。该标准适用于水稻秸秆全量还田的深翻、深旋、水埋茬旋耕、埋茬起浆机械化作业。
 

 

  作业准备——
 
  技术模式:
 
  选择秋季深翻、深旋、水埋茬旋耕 3 种机械化作业方式,按以下技术模式进行水稻秸秆还田整地机械化作业。
 
  技术模式 1:水稻收获→秋季深翻→春季埋茬起浆整地→插秧技术模式 2: 水稻收获→秋季深旋→春季埋茬起浆整地→插秧
 
  技术模式 3: 水稻收获→秋季水埋茬旋耕→春旋(或春翻)整地→春季埋茬起浆整地→插秧
 
  机具要求——
 
  秋季深翻:使用水田埋茬犁或单体作业幅宽≤30 cm、犁柱高度≥60 cm 的铧式犁
 
  秋季深旋:使用刨地机或具备秸秆深埋功能的旋耕机
 
  秋季水埋茬旋耕:使用具有原茬深埋功能的埋茬起浆机或秸秆深埋类旋耕机。
 
  埋茬起浆:使用具备埋茬起浆和强制整平功能无动力耙片式整地机或动力驱动类埋茬起浆机。
 
  地块条件——
 
  秸秆处理:收割后秸秆未经离田处理,水稻留茬高度≤15 cm、秸秆切碎段长≤10 cm、秸秆切碎合格率≥90%、切碎秸秆均匀抛撒。
 
  深翻地块:水田埋茬犁作业条件:地表以下 30 cm 内土壤含水率≤35%;铧式犁作业条件:地表以下 30 cm 内土壤含水率≤25%。耕层土壤冻层厚度≥5 cm、重盐碱地和沙碱地不宜深翻作业。
 
  深旋地块:地表以下 20 cm 以内土壤含水率 30%~80%。耕层土壤冻层厚度≥2 cm 时不宜深旋作业。
 
  水埋茬旋耕地块:地表以下 20 cm 内土壤含水率≥80%,泥脚深度≤30 cm 时适宜水埋茬旋耕作业。
 
  埋茬起浆地块:翻后地或旋后地泡田 24 h 以上,翻后地水深达到土垡 1/2~2/3 处、旋后地田面水深 1 cm~3 cm 适宜埋茬起浆作业。
 
  试作业:
 
  各项作业之前,均应进行试作业。
 
  机组按照预定的速度和参数作业 20 m~50 m,停车检查中间 10 m 的作业质量是否符合相应要求。
 
  如不符合,则继续调整各项作业参数,再试作业,直至符合要求为止。
 
  作业——
 
  秋季深翻:
 
  依据田埂方向规划作业方式和往返路线,减少边角遗漏。
 
  按照试作业确定的方式进行作业,匀速、走直,地头转弯或倒车时需升起机具,随时观察调整作业质量。
 
  作业质量:水田埋茬犁作业地块,耕深≥20 cm、扣垡严密、地表秸秆残留量≤15%、耕深稳定性变异系数≤10%、单个田角余量≤1 m2;单体作业幅宽≤30 cm、犁柱高度≥60 cm的铧式犁作业地块,耕深≥15 cm、扣垡严密、地表秸秆残留量≤20%、耕深稳定性变异系数≤10%、单个田角余量≤1 m2。
 
  秋季深旋:按规划路线匀速、直线作业,地头转弯或倒车时升起机具,作业过程中随时观察调整作业质量,转移地块时切断动力。
 
  作业质量:耕深≥15 cm、地表秸秆残留量≤30%、耕深稳定性≥85%、田面无漏耕。
 
  水埋茬旋耕:按规划路线匀速、直线作业,地头转弯或倒车时需升起机具,作业过程中随时观察调整作业质量,转移地块时切断动力。
 
  作业质量:耕深 10 cm~16 cm、地表秸秆残留量≤30%、耕深稳定性≥85%、田面无漏耕。
 
  埋茬起浆:按照规划路线作业 2~3 遍,第 1 遍低速深旋混压秸秆为主,第 2 遍适当提速以浅旋提浆整平为主,保持匀速作业不漏耕,倒车或过埂应升起机具,随时观察调整作业质量,转移地块时切断动力。
 
  作业质量:耕深 10 cm~16 cm、地表秸秆残留量≤20%、压茬深度≥5 cm、泥浆深度≥6 cm、耕后地表平整度≤3 cm。
 
  检测方法——
 
  秋季深翻:水田埋茬犁作业质量按 DG23/Z 012 检测方法执行;单体作业幅宽≤30 cm、犁柱高度≥60 cm 的铧式犁作业质量按 NY/T 742 检测方法执行。
 
  秋季深旋:按 NY/T 499 检测方法执行。
 
  秋季水埋茬旋耕:按NY/T 499检测方法执行。
 
  春季埋茬起浆:按GB/T 24685检测方法执行
 
  安全要求:按DB21/T 2791作业安全要求执行。
 
  维护与保养:按DB21/T 2791维护与保养要求执行。
 
  注:本文由农机网(www.nongjx.com)整理发布,资料来源:地方标准信息公共服务平台。
 
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