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四川省《DB51/T 2819-2021四川丘陵区玉米全程机械化生产技术规程》解读

2022-09-20 13:26:16 来源:农机网整理发布 阅读量:10292 评论

导读:本标准适用于四川丘陵区普通玉米机械化生产作业,不适用于青贮和鲜食玉米的机械化生产作业。

  【农机网 政策与标准】《DB51/T 2819-2021四川丘陵区玉米全程机械化生产技术规程》是这一标准由四川省农业农村厅提出、归口并解释,由四川农业大学、南充市农业科学院起草。于2021年8月2日由四川省市场监督管理局批准发布,自2021年9月1日起实施。
 
  本标准规定了四川省丘陵区玉米机械化生产中品种选择、种子质量、种植模式、播种期、农机配置、整地、播种、施肥、植保、收获及烘干贮藏等主要作业环节的技术要求。适用于四川丘陵区普通玉米机械化生产作业。不适用于青贮和鲜食玉米的机械化生产作业。
 
  农机配置:
 
  地块面积≤0.3hm2 或坡度≥5º
 
  宜配置1.0m~2.0m微耕机、1.0m~2.0m旋耕机、以手扶式拖拉机或25马力~35马力拖拉机为动力的两行玉米精量播种机、两行玉米收获机、单行中耕施肥机、小型喷药机械。套作玉米农机具配置以微型农机具为主。
 
  地块面积>0.3 hm2 且坡度<5º
 
  宜配置35马力以上拖拉机、2.0m及以上旋耕机、四行及以上玉米精量播种机、四行及以上收获机、两行及以上中耕施肥机、中型喷药机械。套作玉米农机具配置以中小型农机具为主。
 
  整地——
 
  整地机械选择:根据地块面积、坡度、种植模式等选择配置适宜拖拉机、旋耕机,拖拉机功率根据不同耕深、土壤比阻以及机具的规格进行选配。
 
  前茬秸秆处理:前茬作物收获后,适时进行秸秆粉碎、灭茬、深翻作业,秸秆还田作业符合NY/T 500规定。
 
  整地质量要求:播种前精细整地,要求土壤细碎、平整,旋耕质量符合NY/T 499规定。
 
  整地措施:土壤质地为中壤、轻壤和沙壤,选用旋耕作业,旋耕深度为10cm~15cm;土壤质地为重壤和粘土, 先犁耕1次~2次,耕深20cm~25cm,晒田1天~3天,再旋耕1次~2次。
 
  播种——
 
  播种机选择:选择的玉米精量播种机符合JB/T 10293规定,播种机配套动力选择、机具调试等符合DB51/T 1864 规定,作业质量符合NY/T 503规定。
 
  抢墒播种:播种时,土壤质地为沙壤、轻壤和中壤,土壤重量含水量达到15%~18%;土壤质地为重壤和粘土, 土壤重量含水量达到18%~20%。
 
  播种深度:播种时,沙壤、轻壤和中壤播种深度 4cm~5cm;重壤和粘土播种深度 3cm~4cm。
 
  行距:机播行距与收获机行距匹配。
 
  播种量:播种量30.0 kg/hm2~45.0kg/hm2。
 
  播种密度:早熟、矮杆、耐密抗倒品种适宜种植密度60000株/hm2~67500株/hm2;中熟和晚熟、中秆和高秆品种适宜种植密度52500株/hm2~60000株/hm2。
 
  施肥——
 
  施肥机械选择:底肥施用机械选用播种施肥一体机,追肥机械选用具有良好行间通过性能的单行或多行中耕施肥机。
 
  肥料施用量:肥料用量 N 180 kg/hm2~230kg/hm2、P O 75 kg/hm2~100kg/hm2、K O 90 kg/hm2~120kg/hm2。控释肥采用一次性底施。
 
  施肥方式:底肥施用与播种同时进行,施肥深度 3cm~4cm,施肥于种子行侧 5cm~6cm;追肥与中耕同时进行, 追肥深度 5cm~10cm,追肥于植株行侧 8cm~12cm。
 
  植保——
 
  植保机械选择:选用的机械和使用方法符合GB 2763和GB 10395.6规定,喷雾机(器)作业质量符合NY/T 650规范。
 
  草害防治:玉米播后 1~2 天选用二甲戊灵、乙草胺、甲草胺、异丙草胺等喷雾处理土壤;玉米 3~5 叶期、杂草 2~4 叶期,根据田间主要杂草类型选用烟嘧磺隆、苯唑草酮、硝磺草酮等茎叶喷雾。
 
  病虫害防治:在玉米播种、苗期和大喇叭口期 3 个关键时期,根据田间病虫害发生种类,采取物理、生物、化学等措施综合防治,农药使用符合 GB/T 8321 规定。
 
  收获——
 
  收获机选择:根据地块面积、种植模式、坡度等选择配置收获机,收获机具符合GB/T 21962规定,作业质量符合NY/T 1355规定。
 
  收获时期:玉米生理成熟后10~15天或全株变黄、籽粒含水量≤28%时收获。
 
  收获方式:收穗和收粒两种方式均可,有条件的地方尽量籽粒直收。
 
  烘干贮藏:玉米收获后,果穗(籽粒)及时晾晒或烘干,入库时籽粒含水量≤14%。
 
  可点击下方下载完整标准文件。
 
  注:本文由农机网(www.nongjx.com)整理发布,资料来源:山西省农业机械发展中心、地方标准信息公共服务平台。
相关资料下载:

DB51T2819-2021FDIS.pdf

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